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We ensure that children who struggle in learning to read and write gain the skills for a literate and productive future.

For RRCNA Leadership


RRCNA press releases and advisories

J. Alvin Wilbanks, superintendent of Gwinnett County Public Schools in Georgia, awarded the Excellence in Literacy Leadership Award presented by the Reading Recovery Teacher Leaders.

2017 National Reading Recovery & K-6 Literacy Conference Showcases New Ways to Increase Student Achievement

Scholarships Support Training of Reading Recovery Teacher Leaders in Two States and Canada

White House Livestream Features Reading Recovery in MBK What Works Showcase

Observation Survey Receives Highest Possible Ratings for Screening Tools from the National Center on Response to Intervention 10/17/11

Reading Recovery is Recognized as a "Bright Spot" by the Campaign for Grade-Level Reading 8/10/11

For media information
email Vicki Fox
or call 614-310-7332


Read more about Reading Recovery online at these links

? What Works Clearinghouse
See ratings for Reading Recovery's evidence of effectiveness and how it compares with other early reading programs in the WWC review.

? Bright Spot Awards
See what the National Campaign for Grade-Level Reading says about Reading Recovery's high-quality teaching. Read the analysis.

? National Center on Response to Intervention
See ratings for An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement, the screening tool central to Reading Recovery's evaluation and instruction.

Stories from around the nation and the world featuring Reading Recovery personnel and programs


Reading Recovery teachers named Educators of the Year

Flemington Rarington School District, Flemington, NJ

March 23, 2017

Reading Recovery teachers, JenniLee Pierson and Megan McPeek recognized as 2016-17 Educators of the Year by Flemington-Raritan School District. 

Fairview Elementary teacher awarded for Reading Recovery work

Pharos-Tribune, Jeffersonville, IN

March 22, 2017

“They come to you with no confidence in reading or writing, so you get to see them be on grade level or above by the end of the program," Michelle Brown said. "It’s huge to watch them just grow.”

Liberty Elementary School designated as model site for intervention

Fayette County Public Schools-Lexington, Kentucky

March 15, 2017

Principal Gerry Brooks said, "Reading Recovery is a pivotal part of our intervention program at Liberty Elementary School. And the entire staff benefits from the ongoing, job-embedded professional development designed to improve reading instruction that is delivered by our Reading Recovery staff."


Local heroes impressed by students at Reading Recovery Read Aloud event 

Reading Recovery Center of Michigan-Oakland University

March 2, 2017

"The children were so excited to read to the local heroes and the heroes were very impressed by the reading and how much the students have progressed since the beginning of the year," said Mary K Lose, Ed.D., director, Reading Recovery Center of Michigan and associate professor of Reading and Language Arts at Oakland University.

February 2017

Reading Recovery celebrates 25 years at Georgia State University

Georgia State University

February 6, 2017

In the 25 years since its first class, Reading Recovery at Georgia State has expanded its reach to Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia, has trained 1,668 teachers and 81 teacher leaders, and has worked with more than 67,000 children.


January 2017

Janet Dunlop named superintendent, Broken Arrow Public Schools

Tulsa World - Oklahoma

January 4, 2017

During her time at Broken Arrow Public Schools, Dunlop facilitated the district’s literacy initiative, which resulted in a significant increase in literacy rates at the elementary level, and she has been recognized by the National Reading Recovery Council for her work in elementary literacy, Kelly said.


December 2016

Expert: Literacy about more than just reading

Oshkosh Northwestern, USA TODAY NETWORK - Wisconsin
December 7, 2016

Buelow and Jaeden work together every day for a half hour in Reading Recovery, an intense learning session aimed at prevening first-graders from falling behind their peers. "If I can give them reading and writing, that will be with them forever," Buelow said.

The Oshkosh Area School District works with about a fifth of first-grade students in each school, depending on need.  

Reading Recovery implemented at Trimble's Elementary schools
The Trimble Banner - Carrollton, KY
December 1, 2016

Superintendent's Corner: Trimble County Public Schools has initiated the implementation of a rigorous, intentional and highly effective research based intervention to support our youngest readers. For the first time, we are offering the Reading Recovery program in our elementary schools to help close our achievement gap in reading.

November 2016

WISD Board of Trustees issue multiple recognitions, face full agenda

Daily Light - Waxahachie, TX
November 16, 2016

Superintendent of Curriculum and Academics Shelle Blaylock shared that the WISD Board of Trustees and Superintendent Dr. Jeremy Glenn wanted to recognize the Reading Recovery program for 25 years of growing readers in the district.

“The impact of this program has changed the lives of many students who are reading today because of the knowledge and dedication of the Reading Recovery advisors, coordinators and teachers through the years. [...] It is through intensive reading and writing instruction that we have students that can read today,” Blaylock stated.

September 2016

Teacher-leader: Improved communication can increase benefits of Reading Recovery

Herald-Whig - Quincy, IL
September 12, 2016

Tracee Farmer wants to see an even greater impact on students struggling to develop reading and writing skills by increasing communication between staff members to support "transfer of learning" to the classroom.

"It is the best early intervention for at-risk students, hands-down," committee member and retired QPS teacher Pat Arnold said. "It not only teaches kids how to read and write, you work with kids' self-esteem."

"Once they realize they're competent, their confidence goes up," Farmer said.


June 2016

Local News: KPR Budget Committee Approves Balanced Budget

NorthumberlandView.ca - Ontario, Canada
June 6, 2016

Sitting as the Budget Committee, Trustees this evening approved a consolidated budget of $386,501,503 for the next school year.

...Continuing Support for Reading Recovery Program

The Budget includes almost $1 million to continue to support the Board’s reading recovery program. The Reading Recovery program dedicates specially trained teachers to work one-to-one with first graders who are struggling with the complex set of concepts that make reading and writing possible.

“We are very proud of this program, and the opportunities it provides to help students master their reading and writing skills,” says Bobka. “We know that these skills pave the way for future success and achievement across all other areas of learning.”


May 2016

New public school literacy strategy replaces 'piecemeal' effort
CBC News - Nova Scotia
May 20, 2016

The Nova Scotia government unveiled a new literacy strategy on Friday, designed to increase the classroom focus on reading and writing for public school students from Primary through Grade 12.

"We asked 19,000 Nova Scotians what they thought we needed to do differently. It was pretty clear that they did not believe that the reading and writing and literacy skills of our graduates when they left Grade 12 were as good as they should be," said Education Minister Karen Casey.

The strategy includes a $3.2 million investment for new staff — which means hiring 24 new Reading Recovery teachers, nine literacy leads and 28 literacy mentors.

Hammer is Teacher of the Year
Custer County Chronicle - Custar, SD
May 19, 2016

When Karen Hammer heard her name called as this year’s “Teacher of the Year,” only one word could describe her feelings: shocked. 

Hammer was named Hermosa School’s teacher of the year in early April, receiving the Custer School District’s Teacher of the Year title on Thursday, April 28, at the district’s annual awards ceremony and teacher retirement dinner at Crazy Horse Memorial.

At Hermosa School, Hammer serves as a Title I and Reading Recovery teacher, working with students, for the most part, in first through fifth grades. She also provides extra support in language arts and math, working in the students’ classrooms or in small groups in her room.


April 2016

Bethalto appoints new superintendent
AdVantage News - Alton, IL
April 14, 2016

BETHALTO — The Bethalto School District Board of Education has appointed Dr. Jill R. Griffin as the new superintendent of schools for the district, effective July 1.  

Griffin currently serves as the district’s assistant superintendent. Prior to being named assistant superintendent, Griffin worked as a building and central office administrator within the district for 10 years. Before becoming an administrator, she served as a first-grade and Reading Recovery Teacher.


Photos, video: State Rep. Carlos Gonzalez sees Reading Recovery in action at Springfield's Gerena Elementary School
MassLive.com - Springfield, MA
April 12, 2016

"In education, fair isn't everyone getting the same thing. Fair is everyone getting what they need to learn." says Lynn Santa, Teacher Leader for the Reading Recovery program for the Springfield Public Schools.

Santa was among those showing state Representative Carlos Gonzalez, D-Springfield, the Reading Recovery program in action at the Gerena Elementary School.

March 2016

Reading Recovery program works at Middlesex Borough school
mycentralnewjersey.com - Somerville, NJ
March 31, 2016

The newly adopted rigorous Core Curriculum Content Standards have underscored the fact that children must be well-prepared to assume the responsibilities of the digital age.
. . . Dr. Linda A. Madison, Superintendent of Schools in Middlesex Borough Public Schools, had an idea. In the fall of 2013 she spearheaded an aggressive initiative to close the gaps by introducing a research-based program called Reading Recovery. The program identifies first grade students who continue to struggle with literacy skills development.
. . .Launched at Parker Elementary School in September, 2014, Reading Recovery has proven to be a resounding success. Every student who has participated in the program has increased their reading by at least six levels and many have achieved 14 to 16 levels of reading growth.

Special Sarasota classrooms focus on reading
Herald-Tribune - Sarasota, FL
by Shelby Webb
March 28, 2016

...Tuttle Elementary opened its first Reading Recovery rooms Monday to give one-on-one help to students who are reading below grade level.

School Superintendent Lori White said 75 percent of students who go through the Reading Recovery program never need reading remediation again.

Next year, the district hopes to open such programs in all 11 Title I elementary schools, or schools where 75 percent or more of students receive free or reduced-price lunches.

February 2016

Longley principal: Students learning more
Sun Journal - Lewiston, ME
February 9, 2016

It's no secret that Longley Elementary student test scores have lagged far below state averages. It's been that way for years for the school in the poorest neighborhood of the city, where 100 percent of students qualify for free or reduced-price lunches. What is changing is how students are learning.

"Just because students live on Birch Street doesn't mean they can't be held to high expectations," said Principal Kristie Clark.

January 2016

Muscatine elementary teachers selected for Catherine Miller Explorer Award
Muscatine Journal - Muscatine, IA
January 4, 2016

Iowa Reading Recovery teacher Amy Skidmore was one of two winners chosen to receive the Catherine Miller Explorer Award. The award was presented by Jill Goldsberry of The Stanley Foundation. Skidmore plans to travel to New Zealand.

"I taught Reading Recovery for years and years, and I think it would be cool to see their system and what they do," Skidmore said.

2015 stories

Marysville seeks help for 1st-grade readers
The Times Herald - Marysville, MI
December 20, 2015

Marysville Public Schools is looking for money to give some of its first-graders an extra dose of reading help. The district asked the state for an extra $34,650 to provide additional instructional time to first-graders at its three elementary buildings.

"The Reading Recovery program is for non-readers, for kids that have extreme literacy issues," Superintendent Shawn Wrightman said.

Teacher awarded for literacy efforts
The Courier - Russellville, AR
November 16, 2015

Russellville School District teacher Kimberly Wyborny was recentaly presented with the Literacy Advocate Award at the Comprehensive Literacy Conference and Reading Recovery Institute in Little Rock.

Wyborny has been a Reading Recovery teacher and interventionist at Center Valley Elementary for six years. The Literacy Advocate Award recognizes teachers that advocate for struggling literacy learners. 

"I work with two great Reading Recovery teammates and a whole family of advocates at Center Valley," Wyborny said. "It is a great team working together for the students, and I am truly blessed and honored."

Rep. Mills tours LCMA reading program
LaRue County Herald - LaRue County, KY
by Ron Benningfield
October 1, 2015

During a visit to LaRue County Middle School September 25, State Representative Terry Mills saw first-hand how teachers, through a Reading Recovery program, are helping students greatly improve their reading skills.

"With repect to educating our kids, I firmly believe that those who start early are better prepared for future education," said Mills, a Democrat from Lebanon who represents the 24th House District that includes Green, LaRue, and Marion counties. "Our teachers should be commended for the caring they demonstrate."

The LaRue County School District was awarded a Kentucky Department of Education Read to Achieve grant that allows Clifford and Lane to offer opportunities for lower performing students to receive reading instruction based on their needs.

Broken Arrow's Reading Recovery program showing results 
Tulsa World - Tulsa, OK
by Nour Habib
September 18, 2015

As Robyn Carey walked a student back to the classroom on Thursday, the student made a proclamation: “I love reading.” Carey, who this year is a Reading Recovery teacher and Title I reading teacher at Arrowhead Elementary in Broken Arrow, was thrilled to hear it.

“That’s what I want,” she said. “Giving kids the confidence to feel, ‘I can read’ … so they want to keep trying — it’s such a big part of what we do.”

Broken Arrow Public Schools started using the program in 2011-12 and currently has 23 trained Reading Recovery teachers, with four additional teachers being trained this year.

Ehlers' passion for helping students read shows
Worthington News - Worthington, OH
by Pamela Willlis
September 9, 2015

Worthington educator Kellie Ehlers knows how to help struggling readers -- she's been at it for nearly 29 years and the accolades keep coming.

She received a state commendation Aug. 23 at the Back to School Bash at Evening Street Elementary School, where she teaches, specializing in Reading Recovery.

State Rep. Mike Duffey (R-Worthington) presented Ehlers with the commendation from the Ohio House of Representatives, recognizing her selection as the 2015 District 6 Ohio Teacher of the Year. District 6 represents the majority of Franklin, Delaware and Licking counties.

Elementary grade-level reading program debuts
Sarasota Herald Tribune - Sarasota, FL
by Shelby Webb
September 4, 2015

A new program created to help struggling first-grade students read on grade-level will start at three Sarasota County elementary schools this year.

Atwater Elementary and Cranberry Elementary in North Port and Tuttle Elementary in Sarasota will pilot the Reading Recovery Program this fall.

The program consists of intensive one-on-one lessons that last about 30 minutes each day with trained literacy teachers. Each lesson is customized to the student’s needs and complements their classroom learning. The interventions last between 12 and 20 weeks, or end when a student is reading and writing at the same level as their peers.

Laura Kingsley, executive director of elementary schools for the district, said 75 percent of the first-graders who go through the program never need remediation again.

New Ray Miller principal looks to connect with students, community

Kirksville Daily Express - Kirksville, MO
by Danielle Brown
August 8, 2015

Ray Miller Elementary School’s newest principal is looking to increase student academic achievement and build strong bonds with local community members as she prepares to take the lead with the new year quickly approaching. 

...Soon after her first stint at SIU-Edwardsville, Botello began working as an elementary school teacher for first through sixth grades at Halls Ferry Elementary School and began doing Reading Recovery training, she said.

Botello described the Reading Recovery program as a “highly effective short-term intervention, of one-to-one tutoring for low-achieving first graders.”In 2006, she became a Reading Recovery teacher and later an instructional coach for students attending Walnut Grove Elementary School in Ferguson, MO.

USD 501 hears update on literacy and fine arts efforts
The Topeka Capital Journal - Topeka, KS
by Celia Llopis-Jepsen
August 6, 2015

The Topeka Unified School District 501 school board heard updates Thursday on a number of grant-funded initiatives in the district, including efforts to incorporate fine arts education into other disciplines within the school day and to help struggling first-graders read.

The fine arts initiative is funded by the University of Kansas, while a grant from Emporia State University made the reading program possible.

2015 TCAP Results have middle Tennessee districts looking for reading help
Nashville Public Radio - Nasvhille, TN
July 2015

Tennessee’s reading scores have flatlined in recent years, but school officials aren’t talking about backing away from the new standards for reading. In Nashville Metro Schools alone, the district is doubling the number of Reading Recovery teachers and increasing the number of reading clinics.

Literacy: Gatekeeper for success
Broken Arrow Ledger - Broken Arrow, OK
By Dr. Jarod Mendenhall
June 8, 2015

Recently, Broken Arrow Public Schools (BAPS) celebrated the graduation of nearly 1,100 seniors at the BOK Center in downtown Tulsa.

...In 2011, BAPS implemented a program called Reading Recovery which has become a model for districts nationwide to help improve reading skills for struggling first graders. BAPS is currently only one of two districts in the state to offer this program. Since its inception, it has served 529 first graders with a nearly 100 percent pass rate on the state third grade reading test. And, while the RSA focuses on younger students, some issues are not apparent until middle school or high school. Therefore, BAPS practices continuous assessments to ensure struggling students receive proper interventions as soon as they are identified, no matter what grade they are in.

Stiepleman to receive national child literacy award
Columbia Daily Tribune - Columbia, MO
by Roger McKinney
May 14, 2015

Columbia Public Schools Superintendent Peter Stiepleman’s efforts to help educate first-graders struggling to read have earned national recognition.

Stiepleman is one of two educators selected to receive a Reading Recovery Teacher Leader Award, which recognizes people who have made an outstanding contribution to Reading Recovery within their schools and beyond. Stiepleman will be recognized during a June 25 ceremony in Kansas City.

North Central Reading Recovery program celebrates 20 years
Northwoods Radio WJJQ - Tomahawk, WI
May 14, 2015

The local chapter of a National Program credited with assisting more than 2 million first-grade readers will be celebrating a milestone. The North Central Wisconsin Reading Recovery Consortium marks its 20th anniversary with a a special event this evening in Merrill.

Morgan Schools outpace region in K-3 Literacy Score
Times Recorder - McConnelsville, OH
by Bradley W. Parks
May 7, 2015

Students in the Morgan Local School District are reading at levels outpacing the region, according to new data from the Ohio Department of Education.

The department released scores for improvement in literacy from kindergarten through third grade at the beginning of May. Morgan Local was one of just 27 districts in Ohio to earn an A. It also was the only district in 11 southeastern Ohio counties to earn a top mark.

...Susan Troutner is an assistant for instruction at Morgan Local, and she credits the district’s success to the comprehensive reading program it has had in place for more than 25 years, long before state officials instituted the Third Grade Reading Guarantee.

Reading Recovery program helps struggling students catch up

South Washington County Bulletin - Cottage Grove, MN
by William Loeffler
April 8, 2015

Diane Bezdicek was concerned by proposed cuts to School District 833’s Reading Recovery program.

She knows the value of the early intervention program, where first-graders who struggle with reading and writing receive an additional 30 minutes of one-on-one instruction from a specially trained teacher. She’s taught Reading Recovery in the district for 17 years. The program, begun in 1996-97 school year, now serves about 300 students per year. 

An investment plan for tackling the achievement grap

Lexington Herald Leader - Lexington, KY
by Marty Soloman
March 30, 2015

It is time to do some heavy lifting to attack the academic achievement gap in our schools. The five-point program outlined here would significantly ameliorate this nagging, persistent problem and put more unfortunate children on a trajectory for a brighter future.

  • Longer school days for some students
  • More crisis Reading Recovery teachers are needed for kids who cannot read by the third grade
  • Better training for principals
  • Urgent help for youngsters with hearing, dental or optical problems
  • Motivational efforts for students and parents

The Altamont Enterprise - Albany County, NY
by Melissa Hale-Spencer
March 20, 2015

GUILDERLAND — “Everything hinges on reading,” said Theresa Smolen, through tears of gratitude, as she told the school board about her daughter, Sophie, a first-grader at Lynnwood Elementary School.

She showed pages of squiggles that Sophie had made because she couldn’t form the letters to make words. Her mother tried to work with her but grew frustrated, and so did Sophie.

“She really wanted to write but was frustrated,” Smollen said.

Then Sophie became part of the Reading Recovery program at Lynnwood and her reading teacher, Kathy State, used well-practiced strategies to help Sophie, one-on-one, learn to read and write.

Reading Recovery Centre Now Open
The Arrow Newsletter - Manitoba, Canada
Winter 2015

For the very first time in the history of the Reading Recovery program there is a Teacher Training Centre run by First Nations for First Nations. It is housed in Peguis Central School on Peguis First Nation, and teachers from schools all across the Interlake will now have access to Reading Recovery program training – taught by First Nations teacher leader Gloria Sinclair.

“It is the first of its kind, really in all of North America,” states Allyson Matczuk of Manitoba Education and Advanced Learning. “There are six Reading Recovery training centres in Manitoba already, but this is the first where everything is entirely First Nations based.”

Read it now and read it aloud
Schools Week - London, England
by Billie Camden
March 7, 2015

Pupils at a Northampton academy recently took part in Read Aloud, an annual celebration to mark the achievements of early readers who complete a Reading Recovery programme.

Organised by the Institute of Education’s Reading Recovery centre, it enables children to show their new reading abilities.

Pupils at Woodvale Primary Academy took part last week to celebrate the success of those who have overcome their difficulties to become better readers.

Chartham school children practice reading with Donkey from Shrek

Canterbury Times - Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom
February 25, 2015

Primary school children from Chartham came to the Marlowe Theatre in Canterbury to take part in a very special nationwide Read Aloud event on Friday February 20.

The children from Chartham Primary School did some reading with Donkey, taking some time off from performing as part of the touring production of Shrek: The Musical, which is currently on at The Marlowe.

The children each took a turn at reading to the Donkey who was captivated by their abilities; they were presented with certificates, cups and balloons in recognition of this. The children’s Reading Recovery teacher, Sarah Flewitt, commented that she was “very proud of the children” and that they were “super ambassadors” for their school.

Reading Recovery proves its worth
This Week Community News - Delaware, OH
by Kristina Thomas
February 23, 2015

The Delaware City School District is marking its 25th year of participation in the Reading Recovery program.

...Lori Fitzgerald, Reading Recovery teacher, said not just Delaware but the nation as a whole has had great success with the program.

She said it's one of the top-rated intervention programs recommended by the U.S. Department of Education.

An X-citing story of 'Reading Recovery' as actor Gillian Anderson visits school
Islington Tribune - London, England
by Alina Polianskaya
February 20, 2015

YOUNGSTERS at a Barnsbury primary school got the chance to show off their reading skills to X-Files star Gillian Anderson. 

The actor, who is best known for playing Agent Scully in the sci-fi series, heard William Tyndale pupils Liam and Florence read passages from the The Town Mouse and The Country Mouse and Owl Babies

It was all part of the Read Aloud campaign organised by the UCL Institute of Education’s International Literacy Centre as part of a Reading Recovery scheme, to help children with literacy difficulties catch up with their peers.

Brian Jacob and Michael Lombardo: Snyder wise to reject 'read or flunk'
Early Intervention is far better option
Lansing State Journal - Lansing, MI
by Brian Jacob and Michael Lombardo
February 19, 2015

Gov. Rick Snyder’s support of early reading intervention over third grade retention is a smart, thoughtful, and fiscally-responsible decision in the best interest of our kids and Michigan.

...Interventions work. We have seen students around the country raise their reading proficiency through regular, individualized tutoring sessions delivered one-on-one by volunteers. Programs like Reading Partners, Success for All, Literacy Corps, Reading Recovery, and BELL have been proven by rigorous scientific research to make a meaningful and measurable difference in children’s reading skills, and cost a fraction of retention.

Reading Recovery program touches lives at Oakland and beyond
News at OU (Oakland University) - Rochester, MI
February 5, 2015

As the Reading Recovery program celebrates 30 years of helping at-risk children in North America gain literacy skills, leaders at Oakland University are reflecting on the thousands of children who have been helped right here on campus. Oakland is one of only 19 universities in the U.S. to serve as a Reading Recovery training center. Since its founding in 1991, the center has served nearly 105,000 of the lowest-performing first-grade children throughout Michigan and more than 1,300 Michigan teachers have been trained in Reading Recovery. 

At present, there are 13 certified Reading Recovery Teacher Leaders throughout Michigan, as well as two teacher leader trainees currently studying at Oakland. The trainees – Jacqueline Mitchell and Richelle Barkley – are Reading Recovery teachers in Detroit Public Schools. Teacher leaders train new Reading Recovery teachers at the 12 regional Reading Recovery training sites throughout the state. 

Teacher to attend National Reading Recovery conference
Brainerd Dispatch - Brainerd, MD
February 3, 2015

Brainerd public schools teacher Kathryn McAllister will attend the 2015 National Reading Recovery and K-6 Classroom Literacy Conference this month in Columbus, Ohio, thanks to a $1,000 grant from the Reading Recovery Council of North America funded by the Tenyo Family Foundation.

Palmyra Area School District lauds Reading Recovery program
PennLive.com - The Patriot News - Mechanicsburg, PA
by Monica Von Dobeneck
January 29, 2015

The Palmyra Area School District celebrated 20 years of participating in the Reading Recovery program, which helps first graders who struggle with reading catch up to their peers through one-on-one tutoring. Palmyra has been particularly successful in running the program, director Rosemary Sargent told the school board Thursday night.

Wednesday's letters: At-risk students
BlueRidgeNow.com - Hendersonville, NC
Written by Kathleen Stoner
January 14, 2015

To the editor: A new year brings hope for what is possible as well as gratitude for what we already treasure in our lives. As a reading specialist and reading teacher of 25 years, I am grateful that Henderson County remains a champion for our most at-risk students who enter first grade already behind grade level in reading.

Our Title I schools remain able to offer the most highly effective reading program for struggling first-graders. This intervention, Reading Recovery, is the only research-based, beginning reading program in the country consistently shown to help at-risk first-graders learn how to read.