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We ensure that children who struggle in learning to read and write gain the skills for a literate and productive future.

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Effectiveness studies assess whether an intervention works in the field and can be integrated into existing systems.

Substantial evidence documents Reading Recovery's success with the lowest-performing first-grade students in a wide range of educational settings.



 


Read more about research & evaluation


What Works Clearinghouse
Effectiveness
Continued Progress
Reviews of Research
Cost Effectiveness
Responding to Critics
Data Evaluation: IDEC
Measuring Outcomes
 

 





 

Effectiveness Research


Overall Effectiveness

International Data Evaluation Center

What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report: Reading Recovery. (July 2013). United States Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Literacy Learning of At-Risk First-Grade Students in the Reading Recovery Early Intervention. R. M. Schwartz (2005). Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 257-267.

Comparing Instructional Models for the Literacy Education of High Risk First Graders. G. S. Pinnell, C. A. Lyons, D. E. DeFord, A. Bryk, & N. Seltzer. (1994). Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 8-39.

Reading Recovery: Helping At-Risk Children Learn to Read. G. S. Pinnell. (1989). The Elementary School Journal, 90, 161-183.

Evaluation of the i3 Scale-up of Reading Recovery Year One Report, 2011-12
. (2013). Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE).

Phonological Processing Skills and the Reading Recovery Program.
S. J. Iversen & W. E. Tunmer. (1993). Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 437-447.

An Experimental Evaluation of Reading Recovery. Y. Center, K. Wheldall, L. Freeman, L. Outhred, & M. McNaught. (1995). Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 240-263.

A Meta-Analysis of Reading Recovery in United States Schools. J. V. D'Agostino & J. A. Murphy (2004). Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(1), 23-38.

Children's Achievement and Personal and Social Development in a First-Year Reading Recovery Program With Teachers in Training. L. C. Quay, D. C. Steele, C. I. Johnson, & W. Hortman. (2001). Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 5(2), 7-25.
 

Closing the Gap
Investing Equity Funding in Early Literacy. P. Batten (2004, Winter). ERS Spectrum, 22(1), 44-45.

Closing the Literacy Achievement Gap with Early Intervention. E. M. Rodgers, C. Wang, & F. X. Gómez-Bellengé. (2004, April). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Predicting the Literacy Achievement of Struggling Readers: Does Intervening Early Make a Difference? E. M. Rodgers, F. X. Gómez-Bellengé, C. Wang, & M. M. Schultz. (2005, April). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
 

English Language Learners

Descubriendo la Lectura: An Early Intervention Literacy Program in Spanish. K. Escamillla (1994). Literacy, Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1(1), 57-70.

The Success of Reading Recovery for English Language Learners and Descubriendo la Lectura for Bilingual Students in California. J. C. Neal & P. R. Kelly. (1999). Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 4(2), 81-108.

Is Early Literacy Intervention Effective for English Language Learners? Evidence from Reading Recovery. J. Ashdown & O. Simic. (2000). Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 5(1), 27-42.

Learner Outcomes for English Language Learner Low Readers in an Early Intervention. P. R. Kelly, F. X. Gómez-Bellengé, J. Chen, & M. M. Schultz. (2008). TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 235-260.
 

Self-Esteem

The Impact of Reading Recovery Participation on Students' Self-Concepts. W. Rumbaugh & C. Brown. (2000). Reading Psychology, 21, 13-30.

Self-Perceptions of At-Risk and High Achieving Readers: Beyond Reading Recovery Achievement Data
. S.G. Cohen, G. McDonnell & B. Osborn. (1989). In S. McCormick & J. Zutell (Eds.), Cognitive and Social Perspectives for Literacy Research and Instruction: Thirty-Eighth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 117-122). Chicago: National Reading Conference.
 

Teacher-Student Ratio

Effects of Teacher-Student Ratio in Response to Intervention Approaches. R. M. Schwartz, M. C. Schmitt, & M. K. Lose. (2012). The Elementary School Journal, 112(4), 547-567.

Comparing Instructional Models for the Literacy Education of High Risk First Graders. G. S. Pinnell, C. A. Lyons, D. E. DeFord, A. Bryk, & N. Seltzer. (1994). Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 8-39.